Standard 1 — History
Students explore the key historic movements, events and figures that contributed to the development of modern Europe and
America from early civilizations through modern times by examining religious institutions, trade and cultural interactions,
political institutions, and technological developments.
Standard 2 — Civics and Government
Students compare and contrast forms of government in different historical periods with contemporary political structures of
Europe and the Americas and examine the rights and responsibilities of individuals in different political systems.
Standard 3 — Geography
Students identify the characteristics of climate regions in Europe and the Americas and describe major physical features,
countries and cities of Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
Standard 4 — Economics
Students examine the influence of physical and cultural factors upon the economic systems of countries in Europe and the
Early and Classical Civilizations: 1900 B.C. /B.C.E to 700 A.D. /C.E.
6.1.1 Summarize the rise, decline, and cultural achievements of ancient civilizations in Europe and
Examples: Greek, Roman, Mayan, Inca, and Aztec civilizations
6.1.2 Describe and compare the beliefs, the spread and the influence of religions throughout Europe
Examples: Judaism, Christianity, Islam and native practices in Mesoamerica and Europe
Medieval Period: 400 A.D./C.E. – 1500 A.D./C.E.
6.1.3 Explain the continuation and contributions of the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the
Western Roman Empire.
Examples: Influence of the spread of Christianity in Russia and Eastern Europe
6.1.4 Identify and explain the development and organization of political, cultural, social and economic
systems in Europe and the Americas.
Examples: Feudal system, manorial system, rise of kingdoms and empires, and religious
6.1.5 Analyze the diverse points of view and interests of those involved in the Crusades and give
examples of the changes brought about by the Crusades.
Examples: Increased contact between European and non-European peoples, impact on Jews and Muslims in Europe and the Middle East, changes in technology, and centralization of
political and military power
6.1.6 Identify trade routes and discuss their impact on the rise of cultural centers and trade cities in
Europe and Mesoamerica
Examples: Florence, Genoa, Venice, Naples, Tenochtitlan, Machu Pichu and Teotihuacan
6.1.7 Describe how the Black Death, along with economic, environmental and social factors led to the
decline of medieval society
6.1.8 Compare the diverse perspectives, ideas, interests and people that brought about the Renaissance
Examples: Ideas: the importance of the individual, scientific inquiry based on observation and
experimentation, interest in Greek and Roman thought, and new approaches in the fine
arts and literature; People: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Nicholas Copernicus,
William Shakespeare and Galileo Galilei
6.1.9 Analyze the interconnections of people, places and events in the economic, scientific and cultural
exchanges of the European Renaissance that led to the Scientific Revolution, voyages of
discovery and imperial conquest.
Early Modern Era: 1500 to 1800
6.1.10 Examine and explain the outcomes of European colonization on the Americas and the rest of the
Examples: The defeat of the Aztec and Incan empires by the Spanish, the rise of trading empires,
Columbian exchange and slavery, Columbus’ search for India
6.1.11 Compare and contrast Spanish, Portuguese, French, and British colonies in the Americas.
6.1.12 Describe the Reformations and their effects on European and American society.
Examples: Missionary activities, the rise of Calvinism and Lutheranism, Henry VIII’s break with
Parliament and the Catholic Church, the principle of separation of church and state,
Papal reform, and the Council of Trent
6.1.13 Explain the origin and spread of scientific, political, and social ideals associated with the Age of
Enlightenment/Age of Reason.
Examples: The American and French Revolutions and the spread of democratic ideals, the
Scientific Revolution, and the influence on world religions resulting in the assimilation
of religious groups.
6.1.14 Describe the origins, developments and innovations of the Industrial Revolution and explain the
impact these changes brought about.
Examples: Steam engine, factory system, urbanization, changing role of women and child labor
Modern Era: 1700 to the present
6.1.15 Describe the impact of industrialization and urbanization on the lives of individuals and on
trade and cultural exchange between Europe and the Americas and the rest of the world.
6.1.16 Identify individuals, beliefs and events that represent various political ideologies during the
nineteenth and twentieth century’s and explain their significance.
Examples: Liberalism, conservatism, nationalism, socialism, communism, fascism and popular
6.1.17 Discuss the benefits and challenges related to the development of a highly technological society.
Examples: Atomic energy, computers and environmental change
Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Analysis and Interpretation, Research
6.1.18 Create and compare timelines that identify major people, events and developments in the history
of individual civilizations and/or countries that comprise Europe and the Americas.
6.1.19 Define and use the terms decade, century, and millennium, and compare alternative ways that
historical periods and eras are designated by identifying the organizing principles upon which
each is based.
6.1.20 Analyze cause-and-effect relationships, keeping in mind multiple causations, including the
importance of individuals, ideas, human interests, beliefs and chance in history.
Examples: The decline of Greek city-states, the destruction of the Aztecs, and state-sponsored
genocide, including the Holocaust.
6.1.21 Differentiate between fact and interpretation in historical accounts and explain the meaning of
historical passages by identifying who was involved, what happened, where it happened, and
relating them to outcomes that followed and gaps in the historical record.
6.1.22 Form research questions and use a variety of information resources to obtain, evaluate and
present data on people, cultures and developments in Europe and the Americas.
Examples: Collect data and create maps, graphs or spreadsheets showing the impact of
immigration patterns in Canada, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster on Russia and access
to health care in the European Union (EU).
6.1.23 Identify issues related to an historical event in Europe or the Americas and give basic arguments
for and against that issue utilizing the perspectives, interests and values of those involved.
Examples: The role of women in different time periods, decline of ancient civilizations, and
attitudes toward human rights
CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT
Foundations of Government
6.2.1 Compare and contrast major forms of governments in Europe and the Americas throughout history.
Examples: Greek democracies, Roman Republic, Aztec monarchy, parliamentary government,
U.S. Republic, and totalitarianism
6.2.2 Explain how elements of Greek direct democracy and Roman representative democracy are present in
modern systems of government.
6.2.3 Examine key ideas of Magna Carta (1215), the Petition of Right (1628), and the English Bill of Rights
(1689) as documents to place limits on the English monarchy and how they have affected the shaping of
6.2.4 Define the term nation-state and describe the rise of nation-states headed by monarchs in Europe
from 1500 to 1700.
Functions of Government
6.2.5 Discuss the impact of major forms of government in Europe and the Americas on civil and human rights.
6.2.6 Identify and describe the functions of international political organizations in the world today.
Examples: Examine the functions of the World Court, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United Nations (UN).
Roles of Citizens
6.2.7 Define and compare citizenship and the citizen’s role throughout history in Europe and the Americas.
Examples: Compare methods of voting; participation in voluntary organizations of civil society;
and participation in the government in Great Britain, Russia, Brazil, Mexico and Canada.
The World in Spatial Terms
6.3.1 Demonstrate a broad understanding of the countries and capitals of Europe and the Americas.
6.3.2 Use latitude and longitude to locate the capital cities of Europe and the Americas and describe
the uses of locational technology, such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to distinguish
absolute and relative location and to describe Earth’s surfaces.
Places and Regions
6.3.3 Describe and compare major physical characteristics of regions in Europe and the Americas.
Examples: Mountain ranges, rivers, deserts, etc.
6.3.4 Describe and compare major cultural characteristics of regions in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
Examples: Language, religion, recreation, clothing, diet, music/dance, family structure, and
6.3.5 Give examples and describe the formation of important river deltas, mountains and bodies of
water in Europe and the Americas.
Examples: Volga River, Canadian Rockies, Sierra Madre Mountains and Lochs in Scotland
6.3.6 Explain how ocean currents and winds influence climate differences on Europe and the
6.3.7 Locate and describe the climate regions of Europe and the Americas and explain how and why
Examples: Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current
6.3.8 Identify major biomes of Europe and the Americas and explain how these are influenced by
Examples: Rainforests, tundra, woodlands, and deserts
6.3.9 Identify current patterns of population distribution and growth in Europe and the Americas using
a variety of geographic representations such as maps, charts, graphs, and satellite images and
aerial photography. Evaluate different push and pull factors that trigger migrations
Examples: Rural and urban areas; immigration
6.3.10 Explain the ways cultural diffusion, invention, and innovation change culture.
6.3.11 Define the terms anthropology and archeology and explain how these fields contribute to our
understanding of societies in the present and the past.
Environment and Society
6.3.12 Compare the distribution and evaluate the importance of natural resources such as natural gas, oil, forests,
uranium, minerals, coal, seafood and water in Europe and the Americas.
6.3.13 Explain the impact of humans on the physical environment in Europe and the Americas.
6.3.14 Explain and give examples of how nature has impacted the physical environment and human
populations in specific areas of Europe and the Americas.
Examples: Hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and drought
6.4.1 Give examples of how trade related to key developments in the history of Europe and the
Examples: The growth of trading towns and cities in medieval Europe led to money economies,
competition to expand world trade led to European voyages of trade and exploration,
and Mayan trade in Mesoamerica led to colonization and the diffusion of art.
6.4.2 Analyze how countries of Europe and the Americas have been influenced by trade in different
Examples: Increased production and consumption and lower prices
6.4.3 Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between various
6.4. 4 Describe how different economic systems (traditional, command, market and mixed) in
Europe and the Americas answer the basic economic questions on what to produce, how to
produce and for whom to produce.
6.4.5 Compare the standard of living of various countries of Europe and the Americas today using
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita as an indicator.
6.4.6 Analyze current economic issues in the countries of Europe or the Americas using a variety of
Examples: Use information sources such as digital newspapers, the Internet and podcasts to
examine changes in energy prices and consumption, exchange rates and currency values.
6.4.7 Identify economic connections between the local community and the countries of Europe or the
Americas and identify job skills needed to be successful in the workplace.
6.4.8 Identify ways that societies deal with helpful and harmful externalities (spillovers*) in Europe or the
Examples: Government support of public education and governments taxing or regulating
pollution externality (spillover): the impact of an activity (positive or negative) on the well-being of a
6.4.9 Explain how saving and investing help increase productivity and economic growth and compare
and contrast individual saving and investing options.
Examples: Savings accounts, certificates of deposit and stocks